Wednesday, February 13, 2013

Word Families

In English ,words that are made from the same root by adding different suffixes or negative prefixes called "world families". (Adding other prefixes to roots makes bigger changes in meaning. The words are still related, but not as closely.) Below is an example-- the word family 'act.'

A Word Family: Act

Verbs : act ,activate ,actuate,deactivate
Nouns :act,action,activation,activity,actor, actress,deactivation,inaction,inactivity

Related families with the same root and suffixes

(This list shows only the most common forms. Parts of speech aren’t noted-- they are the same as for the suffixes above)
hyperactive, hyperactivity
interact, interaction, interactive, interactively, interactivity
overreact, over-reaction
proactive, proactively
react, reaction, reactivate, reactivation, reactive, reactivity
transact, transaction
Some Definitions with examples:
how to use these parts of speech

To act is to do something. We say,.“Actions speak louder than words.” To activate is to make something (like an account) active. For example, after applying for and receiving a credit card, you must call a certain phone numberto activate it before you can use it. The call confirms that you received the card in the mail. Once it is activatedyou can use it for transactions (in this case purchases).

An active person does things. Activity means “getting out and doing something” rather than just passively letting things happen. (Hyperactivity or being overactive is moving around or doing too much.)

It is wise to be proactive, and take action before problems get serious. The opposite approach is waiting to reactto problems. However, there can also be a problem if a person acts before he thinks!

So what’s the best advice? Participate actively in finding solutions to problems, but be sure to think first!
How to Use Different Parts of Speech in Sentences
(as demonstrated in the definitions above)


tell who or what the sentence is about (as the subject of the sentence.) See actions, activity, & hyperactivity in the definitions above. Nouns can also be the object of a verb or preposition-- the person or thing that receives the action, as in transactions or action (in paragraph 3.) Sometimes there can be several nouns in the same word family, especially if one is a concept (like activity) and one is a person (like actor or actress.)

Notice that the infinitive (the ‘to’ form) of a verb can be the subject of a sentence, acting as a noun as in to act andto activate (the first use.)

Sometimes the present participle of a verb can also act as a noun. (It’s called a gerund when it is used as a noun.) 'Acting’ is a gerund in the sentence: “Acting is a profession that requires constant practice.”

VERBS usually show the action of a sentence: what a noun does. To activate, to react, & acts (in paragraph 3) are verbs.

ADJECTIVES describe (tell about) nouns. Activated, active, overactive, & proactive are adjectives. Activated, like many adjectives, is made using the past participle of a verb. Adjectives can also be made from the present participles of verbs: “Mr. Miller is the acting vice president of the company until Mr. Baker returns.”

Sometimes there are two or more adjectives made from the same verb: boring and bored, frightening andfrightened, surprising and surprised.

In these cases we use the present participle (-ing form) to express the cause of a feeling, and the past participle (usually ending in -ed) to express the result or the feeling itself.

Examples: “Mr. Smith’s class last night was very boring!

We were so bored we counted the minutes until ten o’clock!"

“Have you ever had a really frightening experience? Some people get so frightened at horror movies that they scream.”

ADVERBS modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.They describe how something is done. Actively is an adverb. It tells you how to participate. (Another example: My brother always works proactively, He thinks ahead and takes steps to avoid problems.)

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